By using a batch in vitro anaerobic fecal fermentation model, we have shown that the fecal microflora can rapidly deconjugate rutin, isoquercitrin, and a mixture of quercetin glucuronides. High levels of β,D-glucosidase, α,L-rhamnosidase, and β,D-glucuronidase were present. Rutin underwent deglycosylation, ring fission, and dehydroxylation. The main metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, appeared rapidly (2 h) and was dehydroxylated to 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid within 8 h. The pattern of in vitro fermentation of rutin was not changed by changing the pH (6.0 or 6.9), fermentation scale(10 or 1000 mL), or donors of the inoculum. Hydroxyphenylacetic acids were not methylated by colon flora in vitro. The colonic microflora has enormous potential to transform flavonoids into lower molecular weight phenolics, and these might have protective biological activities in the colon. The site of absorption of flavonoids and the form in which they are absorbed are critical for determining their metabolic pathway and consequent biological activities in vivo.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - 13 Mar 2002|
- Quercetin glucuronides
- Ring fission