Quantum thermodynamics for a model of an expanding Universe

Nana Liu, John Goold, Ivette Fuentes, Vlatko Vedral, Kavan Modi, David Edward Bruschi

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8 Citations (Scopus)


We investigate the thermodynamical properties of quantum fields in curved spacetime. Our approach is to consider quantum fields in curved spacetime as a quantum system undergoing an out-of-equilibrium transformation. The non-equilibrium features are studied by using a formalism which has been developed to derive fluctuation relations and emergent irreversible features beyond the linear response regime. We apply these ideas to an expanding Universe scenario, therefore avoiding assumptions on the relation between entropy and quantum matter. We provide a fluctuation theorem which allows us to understand particle production due to the expansion of the Universe as an entropic increase. Our results pave the way towards a different understanding of the thermodynamics of relativistic and quantum systems in our Universe.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035003
Number of pages11
JournalClassical and Quantum Gravity
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2016


  • cosmology
  • fluctuation theorems
  • general relativity
  • quantum field theory
  • quantum optics
  • quantum thermodynamics

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