Quantitative Detection of Weak D Antigen Variants in Blood Typing using SPR

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Modern techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are very limited, especially for weaker interactions which result from low antigen expression and/or partial expression of the antigen structure. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection is often used to monitor and quantify bio-interactions. Previously, a regenerable, multi-fucntional platform for quantitative RBC phenotyping of normal antigen expression using SPR detection was reported. However, detection of weaker variants were not explored. Here, this sensitivity study used anti-human IgG antibodies immobilized to a gold sensor surface to two clinically important types of weaker D variants using SPR; weak D and partial D. Positive pre-sensitised cells bind to the anti-human IgG monolayer, and the response unit (RU) is reported (>100 RU). Unbound negative cells are directly eluted (<100 RU). Weak D cells were detected between a range of 180-580 RU, due to a lower expression of antigens. Partial D cells, category D VI, were also positively identified (352-1147 RU), similar to that of normal D antigens. The detection of two classes of weaker D variants was achieved for the first time using this fully regenerable SPR platform, opening up a new avenue to replace the current subjective and arbitrary methods for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1616
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • analytical biochemistry
  • biotechnology

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