Quality of life and associated factors among primary care Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Hardesh Dhillon, Rusli Bin Nordin, Amutha Ramadas

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Diabetes complications, medication adherence, and psychosocial well-being have been associated with quality of life (QOL) among severalWestern and Asian populations with diabetes, however, there is little evidence substantiating these relationships among Malaysia’s unique and diverse population. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a Malaysian public primary care clinic among 150 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Structured and validated questionnaires were used to investigate the associations between demographic, clinical, and psychological factors with QOL of the study participants. Approximately three-quarters of patients had a good-excellent QOL. Diabetes-related variables that were significantly associated with poor QOL scores included insulin containing treatment regimens, poor glycemic control, inactive lifestyle, retinopathy, neuropathy, abnormal psychosocial well-being, higher diabetes complication severity, and nonadherence (p < 0.05). The main predictors of a good-excellent QOL were HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (aOR = 20.78, 95% CI = 2.5175.9, p = 0.005), normal anxiety levels (aOR = 5.73, 95% CI = 1.8-18.5, p = 0.004), medication adherence (aOR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.3-8.7, p = 0.012), and an aDCSI score of one and two as compared to those greater than or equal to four (aOR = 7.78, 95% CI = 1.5-39.2, p = 0.013 and aOR = 8.23, 95% CI = 2.1-32.8, p = 0.003), respectively. Medication adherence has also been found to be an effect modifier of relationships between HbA1c, depression, anxiety, disease severity, and QOL. These predictors of QOL are important factors to consider when managing patients with T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3561
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 23 Sep 2019


  • Diabetes complications
  • Medication adherence
  • Psychosocial well-being
  • Quality of life
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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