Background: Group 1 grass pollen allergens are glycoproteins of the Beta -expansin family. They are a predominant component of pollen and are potent allergens with a high frequency of serum IgE reactivity in grass pollen-allergic patients. Bahia grass is distinct from temperate grasses and has a prolonged pollination period and wide distribution in warmer climates. Here we describe the purification of the group 1 pollen allergen, Pas n 1, from Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) , an important subtropical aeroallergen source. Methods: Pas n 1 was purified from an aqueous Bahia grass pollen extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography, andassessed by one- and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and ELISA. Results: Pas n 1 was purified to a single 29-kDa protein band containing two dominant isoforms detected by an allergen-specific monoclonal antibody and serum IgE of a Bahia grass pollen-allergic donor. The frequency of serum IgE reactivity with purified Pas n 1 in 51 Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients was 90.6 . Serum IgE reactivity with purified Pas n 1 was highly correlated with serum IgE reactivity with Bahia grass pollen extract and recombinant Pas n 1 (r = 0.821 and 0.913, respectively). Conclusions: Pas n 1 is a major allergen reactive at high frequency with serum IgE of Bahia grass pollen-allergic patients. Purified natural Pas n 1 has utility for improved specific diagnosis and immunotherapy for Bahia grass pollen allergy.