This paper investigates Rayleigh wave interaction with machined slots on flat aluminium blocks to simulate surface breaking cracks. Using a finite element method, Rayleigh wave scattering by narrow slots of varied depth ranging from 0.5 mm to 20 mm is calculated. Pulsed wideband Rayleigh waves with a centre frequency of 590 kHz and -6 dB bandwidth of 520 kHz is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated and compare well with the published literature. We and other workers have reported enhancement of the measured amplitude or particle velocity of an apparent Rayleigh wave close to a surface defect. In this paper, it is found that the predicted enhancement of in-plane components of particle velocities close to a crack is significantly higher than that of the out-of-plane components of particle velocities which appears to be mainly due to the mode-converted surface skimming longitudinal wave from the crack that has mainly in-plane components near the sample surface. The enhancement of the in-plane particle velocity will be observed regardless of the type of in-plane sensitive ultrasonic detector used. The explanation of the discrepancy of the reflection and transmission coefficients obtained by pulsed and narrow band or pseudo continuous Rayleigh waves is discussed. The later-arriving Rayleigh waves from reverberation along the inside of the crack surface are observed, as has been previously reported by other workers, and this may also be used to gauge slot depth.
- Rayleigh waves
- Surface crack