PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 -dependent Rac exchanger 1 (PREX1) is a Rac-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) overexpressed in a significant proportion of human breast cancers that integrates signals from upstream ErbB2/3 and CXCR4 membrane surface receptors. However, the PREX1 domains that facilitate its oncogenic activity and downstream signaling are not completely understood. We identify that ERK1/2 MAPK acts downstream of PREX1 and contributes to PREX1-mediated anchorage-independent cell growth. PREX1 overexpression increased but its shRNA knockdown decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to EGF/IGF-1 stimulation, resulting in induction of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and p21WAF1/CIP1 . PREX1-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and cell migration were suppressed by inhibition of MEK1/2/ERK1/2 signaling. PREX1 overexpression reduced staurosporine-induced apoptosis whereas its shRNA knockdown promoted apoptosis in response to staurosporine or the anti-estrogen drug tamoxifen. Expression of wild-type but not GEF-inactive PREX1 increased anchorage-independent cell growth. In addition, mouse xenograft studies revealed that expression of wild-type but not GEF-dead PREX1 resulted in the formation of larger tumors that displayed increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but not AKT. The impaired anchorage-independent cell growth, apoptosis, and ERK1/2 signaling observed in stable PREX1 knockdown cells was restored by expression of wild-type but not GEF-dead-PREX1. Therefore, PREX1-Rac-GEF activity is critical for PREX1-dependent anchorage-independent cell growth and xenograft tumor growth and may represent a possible therapeutic target for breast cancers that exhibit PREX1 overexpression.
The full article is found on the Journal of Biological Chemistry website: http://www.jbc.org/content/291/33/17258.full.pdf
- breast cancer
- cell migration
- cell proliferation
- cell signaling
- guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)
Liu, H-J., Ooms, L. M.
, Srijakotre, N., Man, J., Vieusseux, J., Waters, J. E., Feng, Y., Bailey, C. G., Rasko, J. E. J., Price, J. T., & Mitchell, C. A.
(2016). PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 -dependent rac exchanger 1 (PREX1) rac-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling
. The Journal of Biological Chemistry
(33), 17258-17270. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.743401