Psychometric evaluation of a patient-reported symptom index for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: Field testing protocol

Claudia Rutherford, Madeleine T. King, David P. Smith, Daniel S.J. Costa, Margaret Ann Tait, Manish I. Patel, NMIBC-SI Working Group

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a chronic condition requiring intensive follow-up, repeated endoscopic examinations, tumor resections, and intravesical treatments that can occur every 3 months for life. In this clinical context, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are a critical concern for patients and their managing clinicians. PROs have enormous potential to be integral to treatment assessment and recommendations for NMIBC; however, current PRO measures are inadequate for NMIBC because they lack key NMIBC-specific symptoms and side effects associated with contemporary treatments. Objective: The overarching aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a patient-reported symptom index (SI) for individuals with NMIBC (the NMIBC-SI) that is acceptable to patients; reliable, valid, and responsive to differences between contemporary treatments for NMIBC; and fit for purpose as an endpoint in clinical trials. Methods: The NMIBC-SI will be evaluated in 2 field tests across a total of 3 years. Field test 1 is a cross-sectional study design involving 225 adult NMIBC patients recruited while undergoing active treatment or those who completed final treatment within the past week. Data collected include patient demographics, clinical features of the tumor, risk category, treatment type, comorbidity, and PROs. Field test 2 is a prospective longitudinal study involving 225 newly diagnosed NMIBC-SI patients. Clinical data and patient-completed questionnaires will be collected at 4 time points during treatment: before tumor resection, 1 week after resection, end-of-induction intravesical therapy, and 1-year follow-up. Standard psychometric tests will be performed to assess the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and clinical utility of the NMIBC-SI. Results: Participant recruitment to field test 1 commenced in February 2017. Recruitment for field test 2 is planned to commence in January 2018. Final results are expected to be published in 2019. The NMIBC-SI will be freely available for use via registration. Conclusions: This study protocol contains detailed methods that will be used across multiple international sites. Phase 2 in the development of the NMIBC-SI will enable a comprehensive evaluation of its reliability, validity, and responsiveness to ensure that the NMIBC-SI is fit for purpose in clinical research and provides an evidence base for the ongoing improvement of future therapies for NMIBC.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere216
JournalJMIR Research Protocols
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder cancer
  • Cancer
  • Patient reported outcome measures
  • Quality of life
  • Surveys and questionnaires

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