Proteomic Characterization of Two Medically Important Malaysian Snake Venoms, Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan Pit Viper) and Ophiophagus hannah (King Cobra)

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Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Ophiophagus hannah (OH) are two medically important snakes found in Malaysia. While some studies have described the biological properties of these venoms, feeding and environmental conditions also influence the concentration and distribution of snake venom toxins, resulting in variations in venom composition. Therefore, a combined proteomic approach using shotgun and gel filtration chromatography, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, was used to examine the composition of venoms from these Malaysian snakes. The analysis revealed 114 proteins (15 toxin families) and 176 proteins (20 toxin families) in Malaysian Calloselasma rhodostoma and Ophiophagus hannah species, respectively. Flavin monoamine oxidase, phospholipase A₂, phosphodiesterase, snake venom metalloproteinase, and serine protease toxin families were identified in both venoms. Aminopeptidase, glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase along with ankyrin repeats were identified for the first time in CR venom, and insulin, c-type lectins/snaclecs, hepatocyte growth factor, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor together with tumor necrosis factor were identified in OH venom for the first time. Our combined proteomic approach has identified a comprehensive arsenal of toxins in CR and OH venoms. These data may be utilized for improved antivenom production, understanding pathological effects of envenoming, and the discovery of biologically active peptides with medical and/or biotechnological value.

Original languageEnglish
Article number434
Number of pages36
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 26 Oct 2018


  • Calloselasma rhodostoma
  • Ophiophagus hannah
  • proteomics
  • toxin
  • venom proteome
  • venomics

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