Prospective associations of osteosarcopenia and osteodynapenia with incident fracture and mortality over 10 years in community-dwelling older adults

Saliu Balogun, Tania Winzenberg, Karen Wills, David Scott, Michele Callisaya, Flavia Cicuttini, Graeme Jones, Dawn Aitken

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42 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To determine whether older adults with low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia), in the presence of osteoporosis/osteopenia, have an increased risk of fracture and mortality over 10 years, compared to those with low muscle or low bone mass alone or with neither condition. Methods: 1032 participants (52% women; mean age 62.9 ± 7.4 years) were prospectively followed for 10 years. Mortality was ascertained from the death registry and fractures were self-reported. Baseline appendicular lean mass (ALM) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and normalised to body mass index (BMI). Hand grip strength (HGS) was assessed by dynamometer. Osteosarcopenia and osteodynapenia were defined as having T-scores of the total hip and/or lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) < –1 combined with being in the lowest 20% of the sex-specific distribution for ALM/BMI or HGS respectively. Results: Incident fracture risk was significantly higher in participants who were osteodynapenic (RR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.26–3.39), dynapenic alone (RR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.05–2.87), and osteopenic alone (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.15–2.31), compared to those without dynapenia or osteopenia. Mortality risk was significantly higher only in participants with osteosarcopenia (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01–2.21) compared to those without sarcopenia or osteopenia. However, osteosarcopenia and osteodynapenia did not lead to a significantly greater fracture or mortality risk compared to having these conditions on their own. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the combined effect of osteopenia and sarcopenia or dynapenia on fracture and mortality risk, respectively, may not be greater than that of each individual condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-73
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019


  • Dynapenia
  • Fracture
  • Mortality
  • Osteopenia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Sarcopenia

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