@article{c7569e3ab4114e348217be9598499d78,

title = "Properties and Astrophysical Implications of the 150 M o˙Binary Black Hole Merger GW190521",

abstract = "The gravitational-wave signal GW190521 is consistent with a binary black hole (BBH) merger source at redshift 0.8 with unusually high component masses, 85-14+21 M o˙ and 66-18+17 M o˙, compared to previously reported events, and shows mild evidence for spin-induced orbital precession. The primary falls in the mass gap predicted by (pulsational) pair-instability supernova theory, in the approximate range 65-120 M o˙. The probability that at least one of the black holes in GW190521 is in that range is 99.0%. The final mass of the merger (142-16+28 M o˙) classifies it as an intermediate-mass black hole. Under the assumption of a quasi-circular BBH coalescence, we detail the physical properties of GW190521's source binary and its post-merger remnant, including component masses and spin vectors. Three different waveform models, as well as direct comparison to numerical solutions of general relativity, yield consistent estimates of these properties. Tests of strong-field general relativity targeting the merger-ringdown stages of the coalescence indicate consistency of the observed signal with theoretical predictions. We estimate the merger rate of similar systems to be 0.13-0.11+0.30 Gpc-3 yr-1. We discuss the astrophysical implications of GW190521 for stellar collapse and for the possible formation of black holes in the pair-instability mass gap through various channels: via (multiple) stellar coalescences, or via hierarchical mergers of lower-mass black holes in star clusters or in active galactic nuclei. We find it to be unlikely that GW190521 is a strongly lensed signal of a lower-mass black hole binary merger. We also discuss more exotic possible sources for GW190521, including a highly eccentric black hole binary, or a primordial black hole binary.",

author = "R. Abbott and Abbott, {T. D.} and S. Abraham and F. Acernese and K. Ackley and C. Adams and Adhikari, {R. X.} and Adya, {V. B.} and C. Affeldt and M. Agathos and K. Agatsuma and N. Aggarwal and Aguiar, {O. D.} and A. Aich and L. Aiello and A. Ain and P. Ajith and S. Akcay and G. Allen and A. Allocca and Altin, {P. A.} and A. Amato and S. Anand and A. Ananyeva and Anderson, {S. B.} and Anderson, {W. G.} and Angelova, {S. V.} and S. Ansoldi and S. Antier and S. Appert and K. Arai and Araya, {M. C.} and Areeda, {J. S.} and M. Ar{\`e}ne and N. Arnaud and Aronson, {S. M.} and Arun, {K. G.} and Y. Asali and S. Ascenzi and G. Ashton and Aston, {S. M.} and P. Astone and F. Aubin and P. Aufmuth and K. Aultoneal and C. Austin and V. Avendano and S. Babak and P. Bacon and F. Badaracco and Bader, {M. K.M.} and S. Bae and Baer, {A. M.} and J. Baird and F. Baldaccini and G. Ballardin and Ballmer, {S. W.} and A. Bals and A. Balsamo and G. Baltus and S. Banagiri and D. Bankar and Bankar, {R. S.} and Barayoga, {J. C.} and C. Barbieri and Barish, {B. C.} and D. Barker and K. Barkett and P. Barneo and F. Barone and B. Barr and L. Barsotti and M. Barsuglia and D. Barta and J. Bartlett and I. Bartos and R. Bassiri and A. Basti and M. Bawaj and Bayley, {J. C.} and M. Bazzan and B. B{\'e}csy and M. Bejger and I. Belahcene and Bell, {A. S.} and D. Beniwal and Benjamin, {M. G.} and Bentley, {J. D.} and F. Bergamin and Berger, {B. K.} and G. Bergmann and S. Bernuzzi and Berry, {C. P.L.} and D. Bersanetti and A. Bertolini and J. Betzwieser and R. Bhandare and Bhandari, {A. V.} and J. Bidler and E. Biggs and Bilenko, {I. A.} and G. Billingsley and R. Birney and O. Birnholtz and S. Biscans and M. Bischi and S. Biscoveanu and A. Bisht and G. Bissenbayeva and M. Bitossi and Bizouard, {M. A.} and Blackburn, {J. K.} and J. Blackman and Blair, {C. D.} and Blair, {D. G.} and Blair, {R. M.} and F. Bobba and N. Bode and M. Boer and Y. Boetzel and G. Bogaert and F. Bondu and E. Bonilla and R. Bonnand and P. Booker and Boom, {B. A.} and R. Bork and V. Boschi and S. Bose and V. Bossilkov and J. Bosveld and Y. Bouffanais and A. Bozzi and C. Bradaschia and Brady, {P. R.} and A. Bramley and M. Branchesi and Brau, {J. E.} and M. Breschi and T. Briant and Briggs, {J. H.} and F. Brighenti and A. Brillet and M. Brinkmann and P. Brockill and Brooks, {A. F.} and J. Brooks and Brown, {D. D.} and S. Brunett and G. Bruno and R. Bruntz and A. Buikema and T. Bulik and Bulten, {H. J.} and A. Buonanno and R. Buscicchio and D. Buskulic and Byer, {R. L.} and M. Cabero and L. Cadonati and G. Cagnoli and C. Cahillane and Bustillo, {J. Calder{\'o}n} and Callaghan, {J. D.} and Callister, {T. A.} and E. Calloni and Camp, {J. B.} and M. Canepa and Cannon, {K. C.} and H. Cao and J. Cao and G. Carapella and F. Carbognani and S. Caride and Carney, {M. F.} and G. Carullo and Diaz, {J. Casanueva} and C. Casentini and J. Castañeda and S. Caudill and M. Cavagli{\`a} and F. Cavalier and R. Cavalieri and G. Cella and P. Cerd{\'a}-Dur{\'a}n and E. Cesarini and O. Chaibi and K. Chakravarti and C. Chan and M. Chan and S. Chao and P. Charlton and Chase, {E. A.} and E. Chassande-Mottin and D. Chatterjee and M. Chaturvedi and K. Chatziioannou and Chen, {H. Y.} and X. Chen and Y. Chen and Cheng, {H. P.} and Cheong, {C. K.} and Chia, {H. Y.} and F. Chiadini and R. Chierici and A. Chincarini and A. Chiummo and G. Cho and Cho, {H. S.} and M. Cho and N. Christensen and Q. Chu and S. Chua and Chung, {K. W.} and S. Chung and G. Ciani and P. Ciecielag and M. Cie{\'s}lar and Ciobanu, {A. A.} and R. Ciolfi and F. Cipriano and A. Cirone and F. Clara and Clark, {J. A.} and P. Clearwater and S. Clesse and F. Cleva and E. Coccia and Cohadon, {P. F.} and D. Cohen and M. Colleoni and Collette, {C. G.} and C. Collins and M. Colpi and M. Constancio and Easter, {P. J.} and S. Galaudage and B. Goncharov and H{\"u}bner, {M. T.} and Lasky, {P. D.} and Y. Levin and Meadors, {G. D.} and E. Payne and Romero-Shaw, {I. M.} and N. Sarin and Smith, {R. J.E.} and C. Talbot and E. Thrane and Vivanco, {Francisco Hernandez} and Zhu, {X. J.} and {the LIGO Scientific Collaboration} and {Virgo Collaboration}",

year = "2020",

month = sep,

day = "2",

doi = "10.3847/2041-8213/aba493",

language = "English",

volume = "900",

journal = "The Astrophysical Journal Letters",

issn = "2041-8205",

publisher = "IOP Publishing",

number = "1",

}