Abstract Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP)-6 decreases cancer cell proliferation and survival by inhibiting the effects of IGF-II. More recently, IGFBP-6 was found to promote the migration of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells in an IGF-independent manner, and MAPK pathways were involved in this process. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of these IGF-independent migratory actions of IGFBP-6 are largely unknown. Here, we report that prohibitin-2 (PHB2), a singlespan membrane protein, is a key regulator of IGFBP-6-induced RMS cell migration. PHB2 and IGFBP-6 co-localize on the RMS cell surface, and they specifically interact, as demonstrated by affinity chromatography, co-immunoprecipitation, biosensor analysis, and confocal microscopy. Binding affinities for PHB2 are 9.0?1.0 nM for IGFBP-6 and 10.2?0.5 nM for mIGFBP-6, a non-IGF-binding mutant of IGFBP-6. The C-domain but not the N-domain of IGFBP-6 is involved in PHB2 binding. In addition, IGFBP-6 indirectly increases PHB2 tyrosine phosphorylation on RMS membranes. Importantly, PHB2 knockdown completely abolished IGFBP-6-mediated RMS cell migration. In contrast, IGFBP-6-induced MAPK pathway activation was not affected, suggesting thatPHB2may act as a downstream effector of these pathways. These results indicate that PHB2 plays a key role in this IGF-independent action of IGFBP-6 and suggest a possible therapeutic target for RMS. ? 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.