Prodomains regulate the synthesis, extracellular localisation and activity of TGF-β superfamily ligands

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All transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands are synthesised as precursor molecules consisting of a signal peptide, an N-terminal prodomain and a C-terminal mature domain. During synthesis, prodomains interact non-covalently with mature domains, maintaining the molecules in a conformation competent for dimerisation. Dimeric precursors are cleaved by proprotein convertases, and TGF-β ligands are secreted from the cell non-covalently associated with their prodomains. Extracellularly, prodomains localise TGF-β ligands within the vicinity of their target cells via interactions with extracellular matrix proteins, including fibrillin and perlecan. For some family members (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, myostatin, GDF-11 and BMP-10), prodomains bind with high enough affinity to suppress biological activity. The subsequent mechanism of activation of these latent TGF-β ligands varies according to cell type and context, but all activating mechanisms directly target prodomains. Thus, prodomains control many aspects of TGF-β superfamily biology, and alterations in prodomain function are often associated with disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-186
Number of pages13
JournalGrowth Factors
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Activin
  • Bone morphogenetic protein
  • Growth differentiation factor
  • Inhibin
  • Prodomain
  • Transforming growth factor β

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