In a group of 50 patients seen with primary liver cell carcinoma over a period of five years, 38 had cirrhosis. In four patients the cirrhosis was due to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. None of the patients had markers of hepatitis B virus infection, but in three of the four, serum autoantibodies were present. Coexisting autoimmune disease was present in two. Corticosteroids induced remission in all patients, and the liver disease appeared quiescent at the time primary liver cell carcinoma developed.