Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

Jack Cuzick, Mangesh A Thorat, Gerald L Andriole, Otis W Brawley, Powel H Brown, Zoran Culig, Rosalind A Eeles, Leslie G Ford, Freddie C Hamdy, Lars Holmberg, Dragan Ilic, Timothy J Key, Carlo La Vecchia, Hans Lilja, Michael Marberger, Frank L Meyskens, Lori Minasian, Christopher Parker, Howard L Parnes, Sven PernerHarry Rittenhouse, Jack Schalken, Hans Peter Schmid, Bernd J Schmitz-Drager, Fritz H Schroder, Arnulf Stenzl, Bertrand Tombal, Timothy Wilt, Alicja Wolk

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306 Citations (Scopus)


Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial, but changes in the PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and the use of other biomarkers have the potential to minimise the overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers for individuals with raised PSA concentrations or those diagnosed with prostate cancer are likely to identify individuals who can be spared aggressive treatment. Several pharmacological agents such as 5a-reductase inhibitors and aspirin could prevent development of prostate cancer. In this Review, we discuss the present evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer, and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e484 - e492
Number of pages9
JournalThe Lancet Oncology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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