Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and non-diabetics in the Arab Gulf

Muhammed Hassan Nasr, Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan, Noordin Othman, Mahmathi Karuppannan, Noorizan Binti Abdulaziz, Ali Haider Mohammed, Mohammed Ahmed Alsarani, Mohammed Husain Eskembaji, Abdelmannan Mohamed Aman, Gamil Othman

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The link between the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and vitamin D deficiency has perplexed the medical society due to the controversy in the data available. Saudi Arabia (SA) is a sunny region; however, ample amount of data reported the increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency along with T2DM. Thus, this study aimed to compare vitamin D deficiency between healthy and T2DM patients in SA, alongside with the risk factors associated with that. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Unit, Taibah University in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, SA, from November 2017 to May 2018. The involved participants were non-diabetics and T2DM men. Measuring vitamin D for T2DM and non-diabetics group was done by trained technicians. Data analysis was done via SPSS. Results: Sixty-four participants (T2DM group = 32; non-diabetics group = 32) were recruited, and the mean age of T2DM patients was 48.6 ± 10.4, while that of the non-diabetics was 42.4 ± 6.5. The mean of vitamin D level was found higher in the non-diabetic participants than in diabetic patients. There was statistically significant association between vitamin D deficiency and T2DM (P = 0.001). Besides, duration of diabetes was the only factor, found to be positively correlated with vitamin D deficiency in T2DM patients. Conclusion: Early screening for vitamin D serum-level is recommended for T2DM patients in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, early correction of vitamin D levels should be considered, and medical and scientific societies, along with other sectors such as the media, should highlight and increase the awareness of the importance of vitamin D and the seriousness of its deficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-657
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Saudi Arabia
  • T2DM
  • Vitamin D deficiency

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