Prevalence of dementia in people aged 60 years and above: Results from the WiSE study

Mythily Subramaniam, Siow Ann Chong, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Edimansyah Abdin, Boon Yiang Chua, Hong Choon Chua, Goi Khia Eng, Derrick Heng, Soo Boon Hia, Wanping Huang, Anitha Jeyagurunathana, Joshua Kua, Siau Pheng Lee, Rathi Mahendran, Harish Magadi, Srinivasa Malladi, Paul McCrone, Shirlene Pang, Louisa Picco, Vathsala SagayadevanRajeswari Sambasivam, Kok Han Seng, Esmond Seow, Saleha Shafie, Shazana Shahwan, Lay Ling Tan, Mabel Yap, Yunjue Zhang, Li Ling Ng, Martin Prince

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Background: The challenge of an aging population with its expected attendant problem of an increase in the number of people with dementia is a growing concern across the world. Objective: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence and risk factors of dementia in Singapore among the elderly resident population (aged 60 years and above). Methods: The WiSE study was a comprehensive single phase, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey that adapted the 10/66 protocol to establish the 10/66 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders -fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of dementia. 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia diagnosis as established by the survey questionnaires was validated by comparing against a gold standard of clinical assessment. Results: A total of 2,565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.6%. The validity of 10/66 dementia was higher (sensitivity = 95.6%, specificity = 81.8%) than that of DSM-IV dementia (sensitivity = 75.6%, specificity = 88.6%) when compared against the clinical gold standard. The study found that the prevalence of 10/66 dementia was 10% in the older adult population while the prevalence of DSM-IV dementia was 4.6%. Older age (75 years and above); no formal education, or completed primary education (versus higher education); homemaker and retired status (versus employed); and a history of stroke were associated with a higher risk of 10/66 dementia. Conclusion: The establishment of accurate data on the number of people with dementia is essential in the planning of services and initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1127-1138
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • 10/66
  • dementia
  • DSM-IV
  • multi-ethnic
  • prevalence
  • Singapore

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