Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder

Jade M. Murray, Tracey L. Sletten, Michelle Magee, Christopher Gordon, Nicole Lovato, Delwyn J. Bartlett, David J. Kennaway, Leon C. Lack, Ronald R. Grunstein, Steven W. Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Based on the DLMO assessments, patients were classified into two groups: circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring at or after desired bedtime (DBT), or non-circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring before DBT. Results: One hundred and three patients (57%) were classified as circadian DSPD and 79 (43%) as non-circadian DSPD. DLMO occurred 1.66 hours later in circadian DSPD compared to non-circadian DSPD (p < .001). Moderate-severe depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were more prevalent in circadian DSPD (14.0%) than in non-circadian DSPD (3.8%; p < .05). Relative to non-circadian DSPD patients, circadian DSPD patients had 4.31 times increased odds of at least mild depressive symptoms (95% CI 1.75 to 10.64; p < .01). No group differences were found for daytime sleepiness or function, but DSPD symptoms were rated by clinicians to be more severe in those with circadian DSPD. Conclusions: Almost half of patients clinically diagnosed with DSPD did not show misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and the DBT, suggesting that the reported difficulties initiating sleep at the DBT are unlikely to be explained by the (mis)timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity. Circadian misalignment in DSPD is associated with increased depressive symptoms and DSPD symptom severity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzsw002
Number of pages10
JournalSleep
Volume40
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jan 2017

Keywords

  • Circadian misalignment
  • Delayed sleep
  • Depression

Cite this

Murray, J. M., Sletten, T. L., Magee, M., Gordon, C., Lovato, N., Bartlett, D. J., ... Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group (2017). Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder. Sleep, 40(1), [zsw002]. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsw002
Murray, Jade M. ; Sletten, Tracey L. ; Magee, Michelle ; Gordon, Christopher ; Lovato, Nicole ; Bartlett, Delwyn J. ; Kennaway, David J. ; Lack, Leon C. ; Grunstein, Ronald R. ; Lockley, Steven W. ; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W ; Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group. / Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder. In: Sleep. 2017 ; Vol. 40, No. 1.
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title = "Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder",
abstract = "Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Based on the DLMO assessments, patients were classified into two groups: circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring at or after desired bedtime (DBT), or non-circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring before DBT. Results: One hundred and three patients (57{\%}) were classified as circadian DSPD and 79 (43{\%}) as non-circadian DSPD. DLMO occurred 1.66 hours later in circadian DSPD compared to non-circadian DSPD (p < .001). Moderate-severe depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were more prevalent in circadian DSPD (14.0{\%}) than in non-circadian DSPD (3.8{\%}; p < .05). Relative to non-circadian DSPD patients, circadian DSPD patients had 4.31 times increased odds of at least mild depressive symptoms (95{\%} CI 1.75 to 10.64; p < .01). No group differences were found for daytime sleepiness or function, but DSPD symptoms were rated by clinicians to be more severe in those with circadian DSPD. Conclusions: Almost half of patients clinically diagnosed with DSPD did not show misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and the DBT, suggesting that the reported difficulties initiating sleep at the DBT are unlikely to be explained by the (mis)timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity. Circadian misalignment in DSPD is associated with increased depressive symptoms and DSPD symptom severity.",
keywords = "Circadian misalignment, Delayed sleep, Depression",
author = "Murray, {Jade M.} and Sletten, {Tracey L.} and Michelle Magee and Christopher Gordon and Nicole Lovato and Bartlett, {Delwyn J.} and Kennaway, {David J.} and Lack, {Leon C.} and Grunstein, {Ronald R.} and Lockley, {Steven W.} and Rajaratnam, {Shantha M W} and {Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group}",
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Murray, JM, Sletten, TL, Magee, M, Gordon, C, Lovato, N, Bartlett, DJ, Kennaway, DJ, Lack, LC, Grunstein, RR, Lockley, SW, Rajaratnam, SMW & Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group 2017, 'Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder' Sleep, vol. 40, no. 1, zsw002. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsw002

Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder. / Murray, Jade M.; Sletten, Tracey L.; Magee, Michelle; Gordon, Christopher; Lovato, Nicole; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Kennaway, David J.; Lack, Leon C.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group.

In: Sleep, Vol. 40, No. 1, zsw002, 25.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of circadian misalignment and its association with depressive symptoms in delayed sleep phase disorder

AU - Murray, Jade M.

AU - Sletten, Tracey L.

AU - Magee, Michelle

AU - Gordon, Christopher

AU - Lovato, Nicole

AU - Bartlett, Delwyn J.

AU - Kennaway, David J.

AU - Lack, Leon C.

AU - Grunstein, Ronald R.

AU - Lockley, Steven W.

AU - Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

AU - Delayed Sleep on Melatonin (DelSoM) Study Group

PY - 2017/1/25

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N2 - Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Based on the DLMO assessments, patients were classified into two groups: circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring at or after desired bedtime (DBT), or non-circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring before DBT. Results: One hundred and three patients (57%) were classified as circadian DSPD and 79 (43%) as non-circadian DSPD. DLMO occurred 1.66 hours later in circadian DSPD compared to non-circadian DSPD (p < .001). Moderate-severe depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were more prevalent in circadian DSPD (14.0%) than in non-circadian DSPD (3.8%; p < .05). Relative to non-circadian DSPD patients, circadian DSPD patients had 4.31 times increased odds of at least mild depressive symptoms (95% CI 1.75 to 10.64; p < .01). No group differences were found for daytime sleepiness or function, but DSPD symptoms were rated by clinicians to be more severe in those with circadian DSPD. Conclusions: Almost half of patients clinically diagnosed with DSPD did not show misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and the DBT, suggesting that the reported difficulties initiating sleep at the DBT are unlikely to be explained by the (mis)timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity. Circadian misalignment in DSPD is associated with increased depressive symptoms and DSPD symptom severity.

AB - Study Objective: To examine the prevalence of circadian misalignment in clinically diagnosed delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) and to compare mood and daytime functioning in those with and without a circadian basis for the disorder. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two DSPD patients aged 16-64 years, engaged in regular employment or school, underwent sleep-wake monitoring in the home, followed by a sleep laboratory visit for assessment of salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Based on the DLMO assessments, patients were classified into two groups: circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring at or after desired bedtime (DBT), or non-circadian DSPD, defined as DLMO occurring before DBT. Results: One hundred and three patients (57%) were classified as circadian DSPD and 79 (43%) as non-circadian DSPD. DLMO occurred 1.66 hours later in circadian DSPD compared to non-circadian DSPD (p < .001). Moderate-severe depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II) were more prevalent in circadian DSPD (14.0%) than in non-circadian DSPD (3.8%; p < .05). Relative to non-circadian DSPD patients, circadian DSPD patients had 4.31 times increased odds of at least mild depressive symptoms (95% CI 1.75 to 10.64; p < .01). No group differences were found for daytime sleepiness or function, but DSPD symptoms were rated by clinicians to be more severe in those with circadian DSPD. Conclusions: Almost half of patients clinically diagnosed with DSPD did not show misalignment between the circadian pacemaker and the DBT, suggesting that the reported difficulties initiating sleep at the DBT are unlikely to be explained by the (mis)timing of the circadian rhythm of sleep propensity. Circadian misalignment in DSPD is associated with increased depressive symptoms and DSPD symptom severity.

KW - Circadian misalignment

KW - Delayed sleep

KW - Depression

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U2 - 10.1093/sleep/zsw002

DO - 10.1093/sleep/zsw002

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