Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Bangladesh: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Shoumik Kundu, Mahfuza Marzan, Siew Hua Gan, Md Asiful Islam

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    3 Citations (Scopus)


    Resistance to anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) antibiotics is a major public health concern for many high-TB burden countries in Asia, including Bangladesh. Therefore, to represent the overall drug-resistance pattern against TB in Bangladesh, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched to identify studies related to antibiotic-resistant TB. A total of 24 studies covering 13,336 patients with TB were secured and included. The random-effects model was used to calculate the summary estimates. The pooled prevalence of any, mono, multi, poly, and extensive anti-TB antibiotic-resistances were 45.3% [95% CI: 33.5–57.1], 14.3% [95% CI: 11.4–17.2], 22.2% [95% CI: 18.8–25.7], 7.7% [95% CI: 5.6– 9.7], and 0.3% [95% CI: 0.0–1.0], respectively. Among any first and second-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid (35.0%) and cycloserine (44.6%) resistances were the highest, followed by ethambutol (16.2%) and gatifloxacin (0.2%). Any, multi, and poly drug-resistances were higher in retreatment cases compared to the newly diagnosed cases, although mono drug-resistance tended to be higher in newly diagnosed cases (15.7%) than that in retreatment cases (12.5%). The majority (82.6%) of the included studies were of high quality, with most not exhibiting publication bias. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that all outcomes are robust and reliable. It is concluded that resistance to anti-TB drugs in Bangladesh is rampant and fast growing. Therefore, the implementation of a nationwide surveillance system to detect suspected and drug-resistant TB cases, as well as to ensure a more encompassing treatment management by national TB control program, is highly recommended.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number710
    Number of pages21
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Oct 2020


    • Antibiotic resistance
    • Bangladesh
    • Epidemiology
    • Meta-analysis
    • Prevalence
    • Pulmonary tuberculosis
    • Systematic review

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