OBJECTIVE: Femoral arterial cannulation is associated with a significant risk of lower limb ischemia. The aim of the study was to assess the pressure and flow in the femoral artery using a novel bidirectional femoral cannula in a sheep model of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass.
METHODS: Peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass was established using a multistage venous cannula inserted into the internal jugular vein and the bidirectional or a conventional arterial cannula into the femoral artery in seven adult ewes. Systemic and distal perfusion pressures and flow rates were measured during cardiopulmonary bypass with flow rates of 1, 2, 3, and 4 L/min. Lower limb venous oxygen saturation and lactate levels were also measured.
RESULTS: A significantly higher blood flow in the lower limb using the bidirectional cannula was observed and compared with a conventional cannula at all flow rates (mean flow 115 mL/min vs 10 mL/min, P < 0.05). The mean distal perfusion pressure was also significantly higher in the bidirectional cannula group (86 mm Hg vs 45 mm Hg at 4 L/min of flow, P < 0.05). The bidirectional cannula was associated with higher venous oxygen saturations in the lower limb than in the conventional cannula group; however, lower limb lactate production was similar in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This in vivo data demonstrates superior distal flow and pressure characteristics of a novel bidirectional cannula compared with a conventional femoral cannula during peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass.