Presence of HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral therapy-naive and -experienced patients from Papua New Guinea

Janet Gare, Claire E. Ryan, Matthew David, Diana Timbi, Petronia Kaima, Zure Kombati, Ulato Imara, Angela M Kelly-Hanku, Peter M. Siba, Suzanne M. Crowe, Anna C. Hearps

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The optimal benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can be compromised by the emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) resulting in treatment failure. ART was introduced in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 2004, yet biological data on HIVDR are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate levels of HIVDR in ART-naive and -experienced patients in PNG. Methods: We recruited, interviewed and collected blood from 108 ART-naive and 102 ART-experienced patients from two Highlands provinces of PNG. Dried blood spots were tested for HIVDR from all patients with detectable plasma viral load of ≥200 copies/mL using established in-house assays. Results: The PCR amplification success was 90.6% (n=96) and 66.7% (n=12) using dried blood spots from ARTnaive and -experienced patients, respectively. Transmitted drug resistance was detected in 2.1% (n=2) of samples from ART-naive patients; acquired drug resistance was detected in 50% (n=6) of samples from ART-experienced individuals. Conclusions: Our data showed that transmitted drug resistance in PNG is low and acquired drug resistance is higher with 12.7% of the ART-experienced patients failing treatment. As ART access is rapidly expanding in PNG, monitoring of drug resistance is paramount for early detection of treatment failure.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdku089
Pages (from-to)2183-2186
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014
EventAustralasian HIV&AIDS Conference 2013 - Darwin, Australia
Duration: 21 Oct 201323 Oct 2013
Conference number: 25th


  • Acquired drug resistance
  • Dried blood spots
  • Transmitted drug resistance
  • Treatment failure

Cite this