A novel Streptomyces, strain MUSC 149T was isolated from mangrove soil. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomy of MUSC 149T, which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The diamino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK9(H8) and MK9(H6). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that closely related strains include Streptomyces rhizophilus NBRC 108885T (99.2 sequence similarity), S. gramineus NBRC 107863T (98.7 ) and S. graminisoli NBRC 108883T (98.5 ). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 149T and closely related type strains ranged from 12.4 ? 3.3 to 27.3 ? 1.9 . The DNA G + C content was determined to be 72.7 mol . The extract of MUSC 149T exhibited strong antioxidant activity and chemical analysis reported identification of an antioxidant agent, Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-. These data showed that metabolites of MUSC 149T shall be useful as preventive agent against free-radical associated diseases. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 149T, the strain merits assignment to a novel species, for which the name S. mangrovisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 149T (=MCCC 1K00699T=DSM 100438T).