The advancement of composite materials in aircraft structures has led to on increased need for effective structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies that are able to detect and assess damage present in composites structures. The work presented in this paper is interested in understanding using self-sensing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to conduct electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) in glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) to perform structures health monitoring. PWAS are bonded to the composite material and the EMIS method is used to analyze the changes in the structural resonance and anti-resonance. As the damage progresses in the specimen, the impedance spectrum will change. In addition, multi-physics based finite element method (MP-FEM) is used to model the electromechanical behavior of a free PWAS and its interaction with the host structure on which it is bonded. The MP-FEM permits the input and the output variables to be expressed directly in electric terms while the two way electromechanical conversion is done internally in the MP-FEM formulation. To reach the goal of using the EMIS approach to detect damage, several damages models are generated on laminated GFRP structures. The effects of the modeling are carefully studied through experimental validation. A good match has been observed for low and very high frequencies.