Predicting solid-state phase transformations during welding of ferritic steels

Cory J. Hamelin, Ondrej Muránsky, Philip Bendeich, Ken Short, Lyndon Edwards

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The current work presents the numerical analysis of solid-state transformation kinetics relating to conventional welding of ferritic steels, with the aim of predicting the constituent phases in both the fusion zone and the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the weldment. The analysis begins with predictions of isothermal transformation kinetics using thermodynamic principles, such that the chemical composition of the parent metal is the sole user-defined input. The data is then converted to anisothermal transformation kinetics using the Scheil-Avrami additive rule, including the effects of peak temperature and austenite grain growth. Subroutines developed for the Abaqus finite element package use the semi-empirical approach described to predict phase transformations in SA508 Gr.3 Cl.1 steel. To study the effect of the cooling rates and the ability of the current model to predict the final microstructure, two weld samples were subjected to autogenous beam TIG welds under a fast (TG5-F, 5.00 mm/s) and slow (TG5-S, 1.25 mm/s) torch speed. Model validation is carried out by direct comparison with microstructural observations and hardness measurements (via nano-indentation) of the fusion and heat affected zones in both welds. Excellent agreement between the measured and predicted hardness has been found for both weld samples. Additionally, it is shown that the correct identification of the partial austenisation region is a crucial input parameter.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTHERMEC 2011
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventInternational Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials 2011 - Quebec City, Canada
Duration: 1 Aug 20115 Aug 2011
Conference number: 7th

Publication series

NameMaterials Science Forum
ISSN (Print)0255-5476


ConferenceInternational Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials 2011
Abbreviated titleTHERMEC 2011
CityQuebec City
Internet address


  • Ferritic steel
  • Hardness
  • Numerical analysis
  • Phase transformation
  • Welding

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