Preclinical models for Alzheimer's disease: Past, present, and future approaches

Ansab Akhtar, Shraddha M. Gupta, Shubham Dwivedi, Devendra Kumar, Mohd. Farooq Shaikh, Arvind Negi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


A robust preclinical disease model is a primary requirement to understand the underlying mechanisms, signaling pathways, and drug screening for human diseases. Although various preclinical models are available for several diseases, clinical models for Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain underdeveloped and inaccurate. The pathophysiology of AD mainly includes the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Furthermore, neuroinflammation and free radical generation also contribute to AD. Currently, there is a wide gap in scientific approaches to preventing AD progression. Most of the available drugs are limited to symptomatic relief and improve deteriorating cognitive functions. To mimic the pathogenesis of human AD, animal models like 3XTg-AD and 5XFAD are the primarily used mice models in AD therapeutics. Animal models for AD include intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ), amyloid beta-induced, colchicine-induced, etc., focusing on parameters such as cognitive decline and dementia. Unfortunately, the translational rate of the potential drug candidates in clinical trials is poor due to limitations in imitating human AD pathology in animal models. Therefore, the available preclinical models possess a gap in AD modeling. This paper presents an outline that critically assesses the applicability and limitations of the current approaches in disease modeling for AD. Also, we attempted to provide key suggestions for the best-fit model to evaluate potential therapies, which might improve therapy translation from preclinical studies to patients with AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47504–47517
Number of pages14
JournalACS Omega
Issue number51
Publication statusPublished - 27 Dec 2022

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