G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of cell surface signaling proteins, participate in nearly all physiological processes, and are the targets of 30% of marketed drugs. Typically, nanomolar to micromolar concentrations of ligand are used to activate GPCRs in experimental systems. We detected GPCR responses to a wide range of ligand concentrations, from attomolar to millimolar, by measuring GPCR-stimulated production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mathematical modeling showed that femtomolar concentrations of ligand activated, on average, 40% of the cells in a population provided that a cell was activated by one to two binding events. Furthermore, activation of the endogenous β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor (M3R) by femtomolar concentrations of ligand in cell lines and human cardiac fibroblasts caused sustained increases in nuclear translocation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) activity, respectively. These responses were spatially and temporally distinct from those that occurred in response to higher concentrations of ligand and resulted in a distinct cellular proteomic profile. This highly sensitive signaling depended on the GPCRs forming preassembled, higher-order signaling complexes at the plasma membrane. Recognizing that GPCRs respond to ultralow concentrations of neurotransmitters and hormones challenges established paradigms of drug action and provides a previously unappreciated aspect of GPCR activation that is quite distinct from that typically observed with higher ligand concentrations.