Four-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (4D-STEM) is a technique where a full two-dimensional convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern is acquired at every STEM pixel scanned. Capturing the full diffraction pattern provides a rich dataset that potentially contains more information about the specimen than is contained in conventional imaging modes using conventional integrating detectors. Using 4D datasets in STEM from two specimens, monolayer MoS2 and bulk SrTiO3, we demonstrate multiple STEM imaging modes on a quantitative absolute intensity scale, including phase reconstruction of the transmission function via differential phase contrast imaging. Practical issues about sampling (i.e. number of detector pixels), signal-to-noise enhancement and data reduction of large 4D-STEM datasets are emphasized.
- Convergent beam electron diffraction
- Differential phase contrast
- Diffractive imaging
- Phase reconstruction