Conjugated polymers have attracted significant interest in the bioimaging field due to their excellent optical properties and biocompatibility. Tailor-made poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs) are in here described. Two different nanoparticle systems using poly[2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethoxyoctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and a functional statistical copolymer 2-(5′-methoxycarbonylpentyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene (CPM-MDMO-PPV), containing ester groups on the alkoxy side chains, were synthesized by combining miniemulsion and solvent evaporation processes. The hydrolysis of ester groups into carboxylic acid groups on the CPM-MDMO-PPV NPs surface allows for biomolecule conjugation. The NPs exhibited excellent optical properties with a high fluorescent brightness and photostability. The NPs were in vitro tested as potential fluorescent nanoprobes for studying cell populations within the central nervous system. The cell studies demonstrated biocompatibility and surface charge dependent cellular uptake of the NPs. This study highlights that PPV-derivative based particles are a promising bioimaging probe and can cater potential applications in the field of nanomedicine.