Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) regulates cellular functions such as adipogenesis and immune cell activation. However, new information has indicated additional roles of PPARG directing the cyclic changes that occur within ovarian tissue of female mammals, including those that facilitate the release of oocytes each estrous cycle. In addition to ovarian PPARG expression and function, many PPARG actions within adipocytes and macrophages have additional direct and indirect implications for ovarian function and female fertility. This encompasses the regulation of lipid uptake and transport, insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and the regulation of inflammatory mediator synthesis and release. This review discusses the developing links between PPARG activity and female reproductive function, and highlights several mechanisms that may facilitate such a relationship.