The surface of a platinum electrode has been modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) and the enzyme sulfite oxidase (SOx), was entrapped on its surface in an ultrathin polypyrrole (PPy) film. The PtNPs, with a diameter of 30–40 nm, were deposited on the Pt electrode by cycling the electrode potential 20 times from -200 to 200 mV at a sweep rate of 50 mV.s-1. Morphological evidence of the successful incorporation of SOx and the presence of PtNPs were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Also, the electrochemical behavior of the PtNPs/PPy-SOx film was examined by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiometry. Under optimized conditions, the biosensor achieved a sensitivity of 57.5 mV.decade-1, a linear response that extends from 0.75 to 65 μM of sulfite, a detection limit of 12.4 nM, and a response time of 3–5 s. The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wine and beer samples.
- Beer and wine analysis
- Cyclic voltammetry
- Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
- Enzymatic assay
- Scanning electron microscopy