A deeper understanding of how viruses reprogram their hosts for production of progeny is needed to combat infections. Most knowledge on the regulation of cellular gene expression during adenovirus infection is derived from mRNA studies. Here, we investigated the changes in protein expression during the late phase of adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) infection of the IMR-90 cell line by stable isotope labeling in cell culture with subsequent liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Two biological replicates of samples collected at 24 and 36 h post-infection (hpi) were investigated using swapped labeling. In total, 2648 and 2394 proteins were quantified at 24 and 36 hpi, respectively. Among them, 659 and 645 were deregulated >1.6-fold at the two time points. The protein expression was compared with RNA expression using cDNA sequencing data. The correlation was surprisingly low (r = 0.3), and several examples of posttranscriptional regulation were observed; e.g., proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism were up-regulated at the protein level but unchanged at the RNA level, whereas histone proteins were down-regulated at the protein level but up-regulated at the RNA level. The deregulation of cellular gene expression by adenovirus is mediated at multiple levels and more complex than hitherto believed.
- Adenovirus type 2 infection
- deregulation of host cell protein and RNA expression
- IMR-90 cells
- mass spectrometry
- RNA sequencing