Postnatal nutritional deficit is an independent predictor of bronchopulmonary dysplasia among extremely premature infants born at or less than 28 weeks gestation

Andra I. Malikiwi, Yi Man Lee, Miranda Davies-Tuck, Flora Y. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To investigate the relationship between growth, nutritional and fluid intake in the first month of life and the likelihood of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Design & Settings: This is a retrospective case-control study conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre between January 2011 and December 2013. Patients: Thirty-three preterm infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were identified and matched with those with BPD, based on period of birth within a cohort of infants with a birth weight of ≤1000 g and gestational age ≤28 weeks that were admitted to the unit during the study period. Main outcome measures: We reported the weekly and 4-week mean daily caloric and fluid intake, and growth status as changes in Fenton z-scores and weight velocity. The predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: The 4-week mean daily caloric and fluid intake were significantly lower in the BPD group. Mean z-scores of weights, weight velocity and proportions of infants with weights below the 10th percentile on day 28 of life were similar in both groups. The odds of developing BPD were increased when invasive ventilatory support was required at day 28 (OR = 16.5), and were decreased with a higher 4-week averaged daily caloric intake (OR = 0.89). Conclusions: Infants with BPD received a lower caloric and fluid intake in the first month of life. In multivariable regression analysis, two independent predictors for BPD development were the need for invasive ventilatory support and a lower 4-week averaged daily caloric intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29-35
Number of pages7
JournalEarly Human Development
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Extremely Low Birth Weight
  • NICU
  • Nutrition
  • Preterm infants

Cite this