Background: Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of new-onset seizures. Cortical ischemia and large ischemic lesion size are among the most consistently reported risk factors for post-stroke seizures. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is a simple and reliable tool for quantifying the extent of cerebral ischemia and may function as a screening tool for patients with high risk of seizure development. We investigated the association of post-stroke seizures with the extent of ischemia assessed by ASPECTS and with cortical involvement identified on non-contrast CT (NCCT). Methods: This cohort study was based on a prospectively maintained clinical database of acute ischemic stroke patients who were given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator treatment. We included patients with anterior circulation stroke admitted between January 2008 and October 2014. Patients with pre-stroke seizures were excluded. Clinical data and seizure follow-up data were collected. NCCT scans acquired both on stroke admission and at 24 h were analyzed. Logistic regression and cox regression were performed in statistical analysis. Results: A total of 348 patients (median age 73 years, interquartile range [IQR] 63-80, 55% male) were included. During follow-up (median duration 559 days, IQR 107.5-1188.5 days), 22 (6.3%) patients developed post-stroke seizures. Median time from stroke to seizure onset was 138 days (IQR 10-342 days). In univariate logistic regression, both ASPECTS on admission (OR 0.69 per 1-point increase; 95% CI 0.55-0.86; p = 0.001) and at 24 h (OR 0.80 per 1-point increase; 95% CI 0.70-0.92; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with post-stroke seizures. Cortical involvement at 24 h also correlated with seizure occurrence (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.08-8.34; p = 0.03). Cox regression confirmed the higher risk of developing seizures at any time point in patients with lower ASPECTS value and cortical ischemia. Of note, ASPECTS was the only independent predictor for post-stroke seizures in multivariate logistic regression. Conclusion: The extent of ischemia assessed by ASPECTS and cortical involvement identified on NCCT were associated with the development of post-stroke seizures.
- Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score
- Cortical involvement
- Ischemic lesion size
- Non-contrast CT
- Post-stroke seizures