Post-concussive symptoms after a mild traumatic brain injury during childhood and adolescence

Nicola J. Starkey, Kelly Jones, Rosalind Case, Alice Theadom, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Valery Feigin

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common injury during childhood and adolescence but the long-term outcomes are poorly understood. This study examined post-concussive symptoms and behavioural outcomes in children and adolescents up to 24 months post-mTBI. Method: Parents of children aged 8–15 years with mTBI completed the BASC-2 and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire at baseline, 1-, 6-, 12- and 24 months post-injury. An age-matched traumatic brain injury-free cohort was recruited and assessed at 12- and 24 months. Results: PCSs decreased significantly over the first 12 months post-injury. At 12- and 24 months post-injury, the mTBI group reported more PCSs and behavioural symptoms compared to controls. Parents of children with mTBI were more likely to report ≥4 problematic PCS symptoms (28% at both time points) compared to controls (7.7% and 1.7% at 12 and 24 months, respectively). The mTBI group was 4.63 times more likely to have four or more ongoing PCS symptoms at 12 months post-injury compared to controls. Headache was the most common acute post-injury symptom (55%), while the most commonly reported persistent symptoms were irritability, frustration, forgetfulness and fatigue. Conclusions: PCSs are common 2 years post-mTBI in childhood or adolescence. Given this, additional intervention and support is needed for families post-injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-626
Number of pages10
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescence
  • behaviour
  • child
  • concussion
  • longitudinal
  • mild TBI
  • symptoms

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