Oseltamivir is a potent inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase enzymes essential for viral replication. This study aimed to investigate the impact of covariates on pharmacokinetic (PK) variability of oseltamivir and its active metabolite form, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC). Dosing history, plasma drug concentrations, and demographic information were pooled from 13 clinical trials providing data for 390 healthy and infected subjects ranging in age from 1 to 78 years and given oseltamivir doses of 20 to 1,000 mg. Candidate population PK models simultaneously characterizing the time course of oseltamivir and OC in plasma were evaluated by using the NONMEM software program, and subject covariates were assessed using stepwise forward selection ( 0.01) and backward elimination (0.001). A two-compartment model with first-order absorption of oseltamivir and firstorder conversion of oseltamivir to OC and a one-compartment model with first-order elimination of OC were utilized. Body weight when evaluated using a power function was a significant predictor of the apparent oseltamivir clearance and both apparent OC clearance (CLm/F) and central volume of distribution (Vcm/F). Creatinine clearance was a significant predictor of CLm/F, while Vcm/F also decreased linearly with age. A visual predictive check indicated that the final model described oseltamivir and OC concentrations in plasma adequately across dose regimens and subject covariate ranges. Concordance of population mean and individual post hoc predictions of maximum concentration of drug at steady state (Cmax) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h at steady state (AUC0-24) was high (r20.81 and 0.71, respectively). In conclusion, a comprehensive population PK model was constructed to bridge the adult to pediatric oseltamivir PK data, allowing for reasonable estimation of the PK of OC using subject demographic data alone.
Kamal, M. A., Van Wart, S. A., Rayner, C. R., Subramoney, V., Reynolds, D. K., Bulik, C., Smith, P. F., Bhavnani, S., Ambrose, P., & Forrest, A. (2013). Population pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir: Pediatrics through geriatrics. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 57(8), 3470 - 3477. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02438-12