Population pharmacokinetic modeling of the enterohepatic recirculation of fimasartan in rats, dogs, and humans

Tae Hwan Kim, Soyoung Shin, Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Yong Ha Chi, Soo Heui Paik, Jayhyuk Myung, Rajbharan Yadav, Stefan Horkovics-Kovats, Jurgen B Bulitta, Beom Soo Shin

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Enterohepatic recirculation (EHC) can greatly enhance plasma drug exposures and therapeutic effects. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model that can simultaneously characterize the extent and time-course of EHC in three species using fimasartan, a novel angiotensin II receptor blocker, as a model drug. All fimasartan plasma concentration profiles in 32 rats (intravenous doses, 0.3–3 mg/kg; oral doses, 1–10 mg/kg), 34 dogs (intravenous doses, 0.3–1 mg/kg; oral doses, 1–10 mg/kg), and 42 healthy volunteers (single or multiple oral doses, 20–480 mg) were determined via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and simultaneously modeled in S-ADAPT. The proposed model quantitatively characterized EHC in three species after oral and intravenous dosing. The median (range) fraction of drug undergoing recirculation was 76.3% (64.9–88.7%) in rats, 33.3% (24.0–45.9%) in dogs, and 65.6% (56.5–72.0%) in humans. In the presence compared with the absence of EHC, the area under the curve in plasma was predicted to be 4.22-fold (2.85–8.85) as high in rats, 1.50-fold (1.32–1.85) in dogs, and 2.91-fold (2.30–3.57) in humans. The modeled oral bioavailability in rats (median (range), 38.7% (20.0–59.8%)) and dogs (median, 7.13% to 15.4%, depending on the formulation) matched the non-compartmental estimates well. In humans, the predicted oral bioavailability was 25.1% (15.1–43.9%) under fasting and 18.2% (12.2–31.0%) under fed conditions. The allometrically scaled area under the curve predicted from rats was 420 ng ⋅ h/mL for 60 mg fimasartan compared with 424 ± 63 ng ⋅ h/mL observed in humans. The developed population pharmacokinetic model can be utilized to characterize the impact of EHC on plasma drug exposure in animals and humans.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1210-1223
Number of pages14
JournalThe AAPS Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • animal to human scaling
  • enterohepatic recirculation
  • fimasartan
  • population pharmacokinetics

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