Poor adherence and persistence to sodium glucose co‐transporter 2 inhibitors in real world settings: evidence from a systematic review and meta‐analysis

Richard Ofori-Asenso, Berhe Weldearegawi Sahle, Ken Lee Chin, Mohsen Mazidi, Zanfina Ademi, Marie Louise De Bruin, Danny Liew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


AIMS: Despite increasing prescription of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, there is limited insight of the patterns of use among patients with diabetes prescribed these drugs. This study aimed to summarize available real-world data on the adherence and persistence to SGLT2 inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review for observational studies reporting the adherence and persistence to SGLT2 inhibitors was performed in Medline, Embase, and Web of Science from their inception to October 2019. Data were analyzed via random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies (31 cohorts) comprising of 123,854 individuals prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors from eight countries were included. The pooled mean proportions of days covered [PDC] at six months and one year were 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.82) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.66-0.77), respectively. The pooled proportions adherent (PDC ≥0.80) at six months and one year were 59.5% (95% CI 52.9-65.9) and 49.0% (95% CI 42.3-55.8), respectively. The pooled proportions of people persistent at six months, one year, and two years were 80.1% (95% CI 75.8-84.0), 61.8% (95% CI 57.8-65.7), and 45.9% (95% CI 35.5-56.5), respectively. When persistence was defined as absence of ≥90-days gap, the equivalent pooled proportions persistent were 81.5% (95% CI 73.1-88.6), 58.9% (95% CI 53.1-64.6), and 34.7% (95% CI 33.6-35.8). Data from the United States suggested higher adherence and persistence with canagliflozin compared to dapagliflozin. CONCLUSION: Real world adherence and persistence to SGLT2 inhibitors is poor. Hence, targets for improving treatment adherence and persistence need to be identified and appropriate interventions implemented.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages32
JournalDiabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 24 May 2020


  • SGLT2
  • adherence
  • persistence
  • discontinuation
  • sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors

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