Polymyxin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae

multifaceted mechanisms utilized in the presence and absence of the plasmid-encoded phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1

Sue C. Nang, Mei-Ling Han, Heidi H. Yu, Jiping Wang, Von Vergel L. Torres, Chongshan Dai, Tony Velkov, Marina Harper, Jian Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Until plasmid-mediated mcr-1 was discovered, it was believed that polymyxin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria was mainly mediated by the chromosomally-encoded EptA and ArnT, which modify lipid A with phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), respectively. This study aimed to construct a markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant in Klebsiella pneumoniae, validate a reliable reference gene for reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and investigate the interactions among mcr-1, arnT and eptA, in response to polymyxin treatments using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). METHODS: An isogenic markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant (II-503Δmcr-1) was generated from a clinical K. pneumoniae II-503 isolate. The efficacy of different polymyxin B dosage regimens was examined using an in vitro one-compartment PK/PD model and polymyxin resistance was assessed using population analysis profiles. The expression of mcr-1, eptA and arnT was examined using RT-qPCR with a reference gene pepQ, and lipid A was profiled using LC-MS. In vivo polymyxin B efficacy was investigated in a mouse thigh infection model. RESULTS: In K. pneumoniae II-503, mcr-1 was constitutively expressed, irrespective of polymyxin exposure. Against II-503Δmcr-1, an initial bactericidal effect was observed within 4 h with polymyxin B at average steady-state concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/L, mimicking patient PK. However, substantial regrowth and concomitantly increased expression of eptA and arnT were detected. Predominant l-Ara4N-modified lipid A species were detected in II-503Δmcr-1 following polymyxin B treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a unique markerless deletion of mcr-1 in a clinical polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The current polymyxin B dosage regimens are suboptimal against K. pneumoniae, regardless of mcr, and can lead to the emergence of resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3190-3198
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Volume74
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

Cite this

@article{641eaf6dc95d4238accd4b30f4689115,
title = "Polymyxin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: multifaceted mechanisms utilized in the presence and absence of the plasmid-encoded phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Until plasmid-mediated mcr-1 was discovered, it was believed that polymyxin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria was mainly mediated by the chromosomally-encoded EptA and ArnT, which modify lipid A with phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), respectively. This study aimed to construct a markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant in Klebsiella pneumoniae, validate a reliable reference gene for reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and investigate the interactions among mcr-1, arnT and eptA, in response to polymyxin treatments using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). METHODS: An isogenic markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant (II-503Δmcr-1) was generated from a clinical K. pneumoniae II-503 isolate. The efficacy of different polymyxin B dosage regimens was examined using an in vitro one-compartment PK/PD model and polymyxin resistance was assessed using population analysis profiles. The expression of mcr-1, eptA and arnT was examined using RT-qPCR with a reference gene pepQ, and lipid A was profiled using LC-MS. In vivo polymyxin B efficacy was investigated in a mouse thigh infection model. RESULTS: In K. pneumoniae II-503, mcr-1 was constitutively expressed, irrespective of polymyxin exposure. Against II-503Δmcr-1, an initial bactericidal effect was observed within 4 h with polymyxin B at average steady-state concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/L, mimicking patient PK. However, substantial regrowth and concomitantly increased expression of eptA and arnT were detected. Predominant l-Ara4N-modified lipid A species were detected in II-503Δmcr-1 following polymyxin B treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a unique markerless deletion of mcr-1 in a clinical polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The current polymyxin B dosage regimens are suboptimal against K. pneumoniae, regardless of mcr, and can lead to the emergence of resistance.",
author = "Nang, {Sue C.} and Mei-Ling Han and Yu, {Heidi H.} and Jiping Wang and Torres, {Von Vergel L.} and Chongshan Dai and Tony Velkov and Marina Harper and Jian Li",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/jac/dkz314",
language = "English",
volume = "74",
pages = "3190--3198",
journal = "Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy",
issn = "0305-7453",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "11",

}

Polymyxin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae : multifaceted mechanisms utilized in the presence and absence of the plasmid-encoded phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1. / Nang, Sue C.; Han, Mei-Ling; Yu, Heidi H.; Wang, Jiping; Torres, Von Vergel L.; Dai, Chongshan; Velkov, Tony; Harper, Marina; Li, Jian.

In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol. 74, No. 11, 01.11.2019, p. 3190-3198.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polymyxin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae

T2 - multifaceted mechanisms utilized in the presence and absence of the plasmid-encoded phosphoethanolamine transferase gene mcr-1

AU - Nang, Sue C.

AU - Han, Mei-Ling

AU - Yu, Heidi H.

AU - Wang, Jiping

AU - Torres, Von Vergel L.

AU - Dai, Chongshan

AU - Velkov, Tony

AU - Harper, Marina

AU - Li, Jian

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - OBJECTIVES: Until plasmid-mediated mcr-1 was discovered, it was believed that polymyxin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria was mainly mediated by the chromosomally-encoded EptA and ArnT, which modify lipid A with phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), respectively. This study aimed to construct a markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant in Klebsiella pneumoniae, validate a reliable reference gene for reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and investigate the interactions among mcr-1, arnT and eptA, in response to polymyxin treatments using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). METHODS: An isogenic markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant (II-503Δmcr-1) was generated from a clinical K. pneumoniae II-503 isolate. The efficacy of different polymyxin B dosage regimens was examined using an in vitro one-compartment PK/PD model and polymyxin resistance was assessed using population analysis profiles. The expression of mcr-1, eptA and arnT was examined using RT-qPCR with a reference gene pepQ, and lipid A was profiled using LC-MS. In vivo polymyxin B efficacy was investigated in a mouse thigh infection model. RESULTS: In K. pneumoniae II-503, mcr-1 was constitutively expressed, irrespective of polymyxin exposure. Against II-503Δmcr-1, an initial bactericidal effect was observed within 4 h with polymyxin B at average steady-state concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/L, mimicking patient PK. However, substantial regrowth and concomitantly increased expression of eptA and arnT were detected. Predominant l-Ara4N-modified lipid A species were detected in II-503Δmcr-1 following polymyxin B treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a unique markerless deletion of mcr-1 in a clinical polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The current polymyxin B dosage regimens are suboptimal against K. pneumoniae, regardless of mcr, and can lead to the emergence of resistance.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Until plasmid-mediated mcr-1 was discovered, it was believed that polymyxin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria was mainly mediated by the chromosomally-encoded EptA and ArnT, which modify lipid A with phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) and 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose (l-Ara4N), respectively. This study aimed to construct a markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant in Klebsiella pneumoniae, validate a reliable reference gene for reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and investigate the interactions among mcr-1, arnT and eptA, in response to polymyxin treatments using pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). METHODS: An isogenic markerless mcr-1 deletion mutant (II-503Δmcr-1) was generated from a clinical K. pneumoniae II-503 isolate. The efficacy of different polymyxin B dosage regimens was examined using an in vitro one-compartment PK/PD model and polymyxin resistance was assessed using population analysis profiles. The expression of mcr-1, eptA and arnT was examined using RT-qPCR with a reference gene pepQ, and lipid A was profiled using LC-MS. In vivo polymyxin B efficacy was investigated in a mouse thigh infection model. RESULTS: In K. pneumoniae II-503, mcr-1 was constitutively expressed, irrespective of polymyxin exposure. Against II-503Δmcr-1, an initial bactericidal effect was observed within 4 h with polymyxin B at average steady-state concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/L, mimicking patient PK. However, substantial regrowth and concomitantly increased expression of eptA and arnT were detected. Predominant l-Ara4N-modified lipid A species were detected in II-503Δmcr-1 following polymyxin B treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a unique markerless deletion of mcr-1 in a clinical polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae. The current polymyxin B dosage regimens are suboptimal against K. pneumoniae, regardless of mcr, and can lead to the emergence of resistance.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073579574&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/jac/dkz314

DO - 10.1093/jac/dkz314

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 3190

EP - 3198

JO - Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

JF - Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

SN - 0305-7453

IS - 11

ER -