Recent studies show that a member of the interleukin-1 (IL-1)/Toll receptor superfamily, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), recognizes double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Because of the similarity in their cytoplasmic domains, IL-1/Toll receptors share signaling components that associate with the IL-1 receptor, including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK), MyD88, and TRAF6. However, we find that, in response to dsRNA, TLR3 can mediate the activation of both NFκB and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in IL-1-unresponsive mutant cell lines, including IRAK-deficient 11A and 13A cells, which are defective in a component that is downstream of IL-1R but upstream of IRAK. These results clearly indicate that TLR3 does not simply share the signaling components employed by the IL-1 receptor. Through biochemical analyses we have identified an IRAK-independent TLR3-mediated pathway. Upon binding of dsRNA to TLR3, TRAF6, TAK1, and TAB2 are recruited to the receptor to form a complex, which then translocates to the cytosol where TAK1 is phosphorylated and activated. The dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is also detected in this signal-induced TAK1 complex. Kinase inactive mutants of TAK1 (TAK1DN) and PKR (PKRDN) inhibit poly(dI·dC)-induced TLR3-mediated NFκB activation, suggesting that both of these kinases play important roles in this pathway.