Objective: To test the hypothesis that low adiponectin is associated with low fat oxidation in humans. Research Methods and Procedures: We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 75 healthy, nondiabetic Pima Indians (age, 28 ? 7 years; 55 men and 20 women; body fat, 29.7 ? 7.5 ) and 18 whites [(age, 33 ? 8 years; 14 men and 4 women; body fat, 28.2 ? 10.8 (means ? SD)] whose body composition was measured by DXA and 24-hour energy expenditure (24-hour EE) by a respiratory chamber. Respiratory quotient (an estimate of whole-body carbohydrate/lipid oxidation rate) was calculated over 24 hours (24-hour RQ). Results: Before correlational analyses, waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR) and percentage of body fat (PFAT) were adjusted for age, sex, and race; 24-hour EE was adjusted for fat mass and fat-free mass, and 24-hour RQ were adjusted for energy balance. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with WTR (r = -0.42, p <0.0001) and PFAT (r = -0.46, p <0.0001). There was no correlation between plasma adiponectin concentrations and 24-hour RQ, (r = 0.09, p = 0.36) before or after adjustment for PFAT (r = 0.001, p = 0.99, respectively, partial correlation), and no correlation was found between plasma adiponectin concentrations and 24-hour EE (r = -0.12, p = 0.27). Discussion: Our cross-sectional data do not suggest physiological concentrations of fasting plasma adiponectin play a role in the regulation of whole-body fat oxidation or energy expenditure in resting conditions. Whether administration of adiponectin to individuals with low levels of this hormone will increase their fat oxidation rates/energy expenditure remains to be established.