Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities of essential oils from Moroccan medicinal plants: Mentha suaveolens, Lavandula stoechas, and Ammi visnaga

Naoufal El Hachlafi, Nesrine Benkhaira, Samiah Hamad Al-Mijalli, Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Rhizlan Abdnim, Emad M. Abdallah, Mohamed Jeddi, Mohamed Bnouham, Learn Han Lee, Chrismawan Ardianto, Long Chiau Ming, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

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20 Citations (Scopus)


Mentha suaveolens, Lavandula stoechas, and Ammi visnaga are widely used in Moroccan folk medicine against several pathological disorders, including diabetes and infectious diseases. This work was designed to determine the chemical profile of M. suaveolens (MSEO), L. stoechas (LSEO), and A. visnaga (AVEO) essential oils and assess their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects. The volatile components of LSEO, AVEO, and MSEO were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). The in vitro antidiabetic activity was assessed using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes, while DPPH, FRAP, and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The antimicrobial activities were investigated using disc diffusion and broth-microdilution assays. GC-MS investigation revealed that the main components were fenchone (29.77 %) and camphor (24.9 %) for LSEO, and linalool (38.29 %) for AVEO, while MSEO was mainly represented by piperitenone oxide (74.55 %). The results of the antimicrobial evaluation showed that all examined essential oils (EOs) had noticeable antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and yeast, especially Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC, MBC, and MFC values were ranged from 0.015 % to 0.5 %. The MBC/MIC and MFC/MIC ratios were less than or equal to 4.0 % (v/v), indicating their noticeable bactericidal and candidacidal efficacy. Moreover, the three EOs showed significant inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase (p < 0.05). It also exerted remarkable activity on FRAP, β-carotene, and DPPH radicals. These findings demonstrated that the tested plants have promising biological activities, validating their ethnomedicinal value and providing potential applications as natural drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114937
Number of pages11
JournalBiomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Biodiversity
  • Diabetes
  • Infectious disease
  • Natural resources
  • Oxidative stress
  • Plant species

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