Objectives The potential utility of liquid crystalline lipid-based formulations in oral drug delivery is expected to depend critically on their structure formation and stability in gastrointestinal fluids. The phase behaviour of lipid-based liquid crystals formed by phytantriol and glyceryl monooleate, known to form a bicontinuous cubic phase in excess water, was therefore assessed in physiologically-relevant simulated gastrointestinal media. Methods Fixed composition phase studies, crossed polarised light microscopy (CPLM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to determine the phase structures formed in phosphate-buffered saline, simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in the presence of model poorly water soluble drugs cinnarizine, diazepam and vitamin E acetate. Key findings The phase behaviour of phytantriol in phosphate-buffered saline was very similar to that in water. Increasing concentrations of bile components (bile salts and phospholipids) caused an increase in the lattice parameter of the cubic phase structure for both lipids. Incorporation of cinnarizine and diazepam did not influence the phase behaviour of the phytantriol- or glyceryl monooleate-based systems at physiological temperatures; however, an inverse hexagonal phase formed on incorporation of vitamin E acetate. Conclusions Phytantriol and glyceryl monooleate have the potential to form stable cubic phase liquid crystalline delivery systems in the gastrointestinal tract. In-vivo studies to assess their sustained-release behaviour are warranted.
Nguyen, T-H., Hanley, T., Porter, C., Larson, I., & Boyd, B. (2010). Phytantriol and glyceryl monooleate cubic liquid crystalline phases as sustained-release oral drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs I. Phase behaviour in physiologically-relevant media. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 62, 844 - 855. https://doi.org/10.1211/jpp.62.07.0005