Physiological and therapeutic effects of carnosine on cardiometabolic risk and disease

Estifanos Baye, Barbara Ukropcova, Jozef Ukropec, Alan Hipkiss, Giancarlo Aldini, Barbora De Courten

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They represent major public health threat to our society. Increasing prevalence of obesity and T2DM contributes to escalating morbidity and mortality from CVD and stroke. Carnosine (β-alanyl-l-histidine) is a dipeptide with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-ischaemic and chelating roles and is available as an over-the-counter food supplement. Animal evidence suggests that carnosine may offer many promising therapeutic benefits for multiple chronic diseases due to these properties. Carnosine, traditionally used in exercise physiology to increase exercise performance, has potential preventative and therapeutic benefits in obesity, insulin resistance, T2DM and diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications (CVD and stroke) as well as number of neurological and mental health conditions. However, relatively little evidence is available in humans. Thus, future studies should focus on well-designed clinical trials to confirm or refute a potential role of carnosine in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, in addition to advancing knowledge from the basic science and animal studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1131-1149
Number of pages19
JournalAmino Acids
Volume48
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

Keywords

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Carnosine
  • Cholesterol
  • Energy expenditure
  • Insulin resistance
  • Ischaemia
  • Obesity
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Type 2 diabetes

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