Phosphoinositide phosphatases: just as important as the kinases.

Jennifer M Dyson, Clare G Fedele, Elizabeth Michele Davies, Jelena Becanovic, Christina Anne Mitchell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Phosphoinositide phosphatases comprise several large enzyme families with over 35 mammalian enzymes identified to date that degrade many phosphoinositide signals. Growth factor or insulin stimulation activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P(2)] to form phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)], which is rapidly dephosphorylated either by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) to PtdIns(4,5)P(2), or by the 5-phosphatases (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases), generating PtdIns(3,4)P(2). 5-phosphatases also hydrolyze PtdIns(4,5)P(2) forming PtdIns(4)P. Ten mammalian 5-phosphatases have been identified, which regulate hematopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signaling, and embryonic development. Two 5-phosphatase genes, OCRL and INPP5E are mutated in Lowe and Joubert syndrome respectively. SHIP [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain inositol phosphatase] 2, and SKIP (skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) negatively regulate insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis. SHIP2 polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition to insulin resistance. SHIP1 controls hematopoietic cell proliferation and is mutated in some leukemias. The inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatases, INPP4A and INPP4B degrade PtdIns(3,4)P(2) to PtdIns(3)P and regulate neuroexcitatory cell death, or act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer respectively. The Sac phosphatases degrade multiple phosphoinositides, such as PtdIns(3)P, PtdIns(4)P, PtdIns(5)P and PtdIns(3,5)P(2) to form PtdIns. Mutation in the Sac phosphatase gene, FIG4, leads to a degenerative neuropathy. Therefore the phosphatases, like the lipid kinases, play major roles in regulating cellular functions and their mutation or altered expression leads to many human diseases.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhosphoinositides I: Enzymes of Synthesis and Degradation
EditorsT Balla, M Wymann, J D York
Place of PublicationUSA
PublisherSpringer
Pages215-279
Number of pages65
Volume58
Edition1st
ISBN (Print)9789400730113
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Publication series

NameSubcellular Biochemistry
PublisherSpringer
Volume58
ISSN (Print)0306-0225

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