Pharmacological, phytochemical and in-vivo toxicological perspectives of a xero-halophyte medicinal plant: Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey

Hammad Saleem, Gokhan Zengin, Marcello Locatelli, Irshad Ahmad, Saharish Khaliq, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally, Riaz Hussain, Kannan R.R. Rengasamy, Adriano Mollica, Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Nafees Ahemad

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This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg QE/g) contents which correlate with its most significant radical scavenging, reducing potential and tyrosinase inhibition. The dichloromethane extract was most potent for phosphomolybdenum, ferrous chelation, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and cholinesterase inhibition assays. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanol extract unveiled to identify 11 secondary metabolites belonging to five sub-groups, i.e., phenolic, alkaloid, carbohydrate, terpenoid, and fatty acid derivatives. Additionally, in vivo toxicity was conducted for 21 days and the methanol extract at different doses (150, 200, 250 and 300 mg/kg) was administered in experimental chicks divided into five groups each containing five individuals. Different physical, haematological and biochemical parameters along with the absolute and relative weight of visceral body organs were studied. Overall, no toxic effect was noted for the extract at tested doses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110535
Number of pages8
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


  • Antioxidant
  • Bioactive contents
  • Enzyme inhibition
  • Toxicity Zaleya pentandra

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