Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic factors influencing emergence of resistance to linezolid in an in vitro model

Lauren Marie Boak, Jian Li, Craig Robert Rayner, Roger Leigh Nation

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Emerging resistance threatens the usefulness of linezolid for the treatment of severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Optimal pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) indices have been described for the antimicrobial efficacy of linezolid (area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h at steady state divided by the MIC, > 100; the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that the drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state PK conditions, > 85). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of these PK/PD indices on the development of resistance to linezolid by using an in vitro PK/PD model. Four dosage regimens were simulated over 72 h (two intermittent bolus regimens of 600 mg every 12 h [q12h] and 120 mg q12h and two continuous-infusion regimens of 120 mg/24 h and 30 mg/24 h) against four reference strains: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus-faecium (VRE). Linezolid concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Changes in susceptibility were characterized by pre- and posttreatment MIC measurements and population analysis profiles (PAPs). The linezolid concentrations that were achieved closely matched those that were targeted. The simulation with 600 mg q12h provided a > 3-log(10) reduction in the number of CFU/ml for all four strains, as did the 120-mg-q12h regimen for hVISA and VISA and the 30-mg/24-h continuous infusion for VRE and VISA. After 72 h of exposure to the 120-mg/24-h continuous-infusion simulation, the area under the PAP curve for all strains increased substantially (40 to 178 ); increases in the MICs for the MRSA and hVISA strains were observed. The results demonstrate that PK/PD considerations are important in optimizing both antibacterial activity and the development of resistance to linezolid. The potenti
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1287 - 1292
Number of pages6
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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