Pharmacodynamics of dose-escalated ‘front-loading’ polymyxin B regimens against polymyxin-resistant mcr-1-harbouring Escherichia coli

Nicholas M. Smith, Zackery P. Bulman, Arthur O Sieron, Jurgen B Bulitta, Patricia N Holden, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Gerard D. Wright, Brian Tsuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria harbouring the mcr-1 plasmid are resistant to the ‘last-line’ polymyxins and have been reported worldwide. Our objective was to define the impact of increasing the initial polymyxin B dose intensity against an mcr-1-harbouring strain to delineate the impact of plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance on the dynamics of bacterial killing and resistance.
Methods: A hollow fibre infection model (HFIM) was used to simulate polymyxin B regimens against an mcr-1-harbouring Escherichia coli (MIC 8 mg/L) over 10 days. Four escalating polymyxin B ‘front-loading’ regimens(3.33, 6.66, 13.3 or 26.6 mg/kg for one dose followed by 1.43 mg/kg every 12 h starting 12 h later) simulating human pharmacokinetics were utilized in the HFIM. A mechanism-based, mathematical model was developed using S-ADAPT to characterize bacterial killing.
Results: The 3.33 mg/kg ‘front-loading’ regimen resulted in regrowth mirroring the growth control. The 6.66,13.3 and 26.6mg/kg ‘front-loading’ regimens resulted in maximal bacterial reductions of 1.91, 3.79 and6.14 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. Irrespective of the early polymyxin B exposure (24 h AUC), population analysis profiles showed similar growth of polymyxin B-resistant subpopulations. The HFIM data were well described by the mechanism-based model integrating three subpopulations (susceptible, intermediate and resistant). Compared with the susceptible subpopulation of mcr-1-harbouring E. coli, the resistant subpopulation had an approximately 10-fold lower rate of killing due to polymyxin B treatment.
Conclusions: Manipulating initial dose intensity of polymyxin B was not able to overcome plasmid-mediated resistance due to mcr-1 in E. coli. This reinforces the need to develop new combinatorial strategies to combat these highly resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberdkx121
Pages (from-to)2297-2303
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2017

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