Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms

Lawton Earl Shaw, Khanh Chuyen Phung, Michael Raymond Grace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Environmental context Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are routinely found in waters discharged from treatment plants and in surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Despite the widespread occurrence of these biologically active agents, there is limited understanding of their potential effects on key ecosystem processes such as primary production, ecosystem respiration and algal growth. This paper examines the effects of five common pharmaceuticals on the rates of these fundamental processes. Abstract Pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were used to study in situ responses of aquatic biofilms in an urbanised lentic ecosystem to five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs; caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine and metformin). The pharmaceutical diffusing substrates consisted of porous biofilm substrates placed atop a mass of agar amended with 2.5mM of the PPCP compound of interest. Over 21 days, biofilms growing on the substrata were exposed to slow diffusion of the PPCP through the agar and porous substrate. Algal biomass was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-81%) and ciprofloxacin (-50%). Gross primary production was completely suppressed by diphenhydramine exposure but stimulated by caffeine (+39%) and cimetidine (+46%). For heterotroph biofilms, community respiration was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-24%). To characterise PPCP exposure, rates of diffusion from the pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were measured at 10, 20 and 30°C. Diffusion was Fickian for all compounds and all temperatures. Diffusion coefficients, D, were in the range 1.5×10-10 to 1.1×10-9m2s-1. From diffusion data, average release rates over 21 days were typically 30-50ngmin-1cm-2 at 20°C. The results show that PPCPs can dramatically affect rates of key ecological processes, and the relationship between release rate and ambient concentration of PPCPs is discussed
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-306
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Chemistry
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • caffeine
  • cimetidine
  • ciprofloxacin
  • diffusion coefficient
  • diphenhydramine
  • metformin

Cite this

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title = "Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms",
abstract = "Environmental context Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are routinely found in waters discharged from treatment plants and in surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Despite the widespread occurrence of these biologically active agents, there is limited understanding of their potential effects on key ecosystem processes such as primary production, ecosystem respiration and algal growth. This paper examines the effects of five common pharmaceuticals on the rates of these fundamental processes. Abstract Pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were used to study in situ responses of aquatic biofilms in an urbanised lentic ecosystem to five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs; caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine and metformin). The pharmaceutical diffusing substrates consisted of porous biofilm substrates placed atop a mass of agar amended with 2.5mM of the PPCP compound of interest. Over 21 days, biofilms growing on the substrata were exposed to slow diffusion of the PPCP through the agar and porous substrate. Algal biomass was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-81{\%}) and ciprofloxacin (-50{\%}). Gross primary production was completely suppressed by diphenhydramine exposure but stimulated by caffeine (+39{\%}) and cimetidine (+46{\%}). For heterotroph biofilms, community respiration was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-24{\%}). To characterise PPCP exposure, rates of diffusion from the pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were measured at 10, 20 and 30°C. Diffusion was Fickian for all compounds and all temperatures. Diffusion coefficients, D, were in the range 1.5×10-10 to 1.1×10-9m2s-1. From diffusion data, average release rates over 21 days were typically 30-50ngmin-1cm-2 at 20°C. The results show that PPCPs can dramatically affect rates of key ecological processes, and the relationship between release rate and ambient concentration of PPCPs is discussed",
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author = "Shaw, {Lawton Earl} and Phung, {Khanh Chuyen} and Grace, {Michael Raymond}",
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Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms. / Shaw, Lawton Earl; Phung, Khanh Chuyen; Grace, Michael Raymond.

In: Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2015, p. 301-306.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter growth and function in lentic biofilms

AU - Shaw, Lawton Earl

AU - Phung, Khanh Chuyen

AU - Grace, Michael Raymond

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Environmental context Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are routinely found in waters discharged from treatment plants and in surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Despite the widespread occurrence of these biologically active agents, there is limited understanding of their potential effects on key ecosystem processes such as primary production, ecosystem respiration and algal growth. This paper examines the effects of five common pharmaceuticals on the rates of these fundamental processes. Abstract Pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were used to study in situ responses of aquatic biofilms in an urbanised lentic ecosystem to five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs; caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine and metformin). The pharmaceutical diffusing substrates consisted of porous biofilm substrates placed atop a mass of agar amended with 2.5mM of the PPCP compound of interest. Over 21 days, biofilms growing on the substrata were exposed to slow diffusion of the PPCP through the agar and porous substrate. Algal biomass was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-81%) and ciprofloxacin (-50%). Gross primary production was completely suppressed by diphenhydramine exposure but stimulated by caffeine (+39%) and cimetidine (+46%). For heterotroph biofilms, community respiration was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-24%). To characterise PPCP exposure, rates of diffusion from the pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were measured at 10, 20 and 30°C. Diffusion was Fickian for all compounds and all temperatures. Diffusion coefficients, D, were in the range 1.5×10-10 to 1.1×10-9m2s-1. From diffusion data, average release rates over 21 days were typically 30-50ngmin-1cm-2 at 20°C. The results show that PPCPs can dramatically affect rates of key ecological processes, and the relationship between release rate and ambient concentration of PPCPs is discussed

AB - Environmental context Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are routinely found in waters discharged from treatment plants and in surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Despite the widespread occurrence of these biologically active agents, there is limited understanding of their potential effects on key ecosystem processes such as primary production, ecosystem respiration and algal growth. This paper examines the effects of five common pharmaceuticals on the rates of these fundamental processes. Abstract Pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were used to study in situ responses of aquatic biofilms in an urbanised lentic ecosystem to five pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs; caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, diphenhydramine and metformin). The pharmaceutical diffusing substrates consisted of porous biofilm substrates placed atop a mass of agar amended with 2.5mM of the PPCP compound of interest. Over 21 days, biofilms growing on the substrata were exposed to slow diffusion of the PPCP through the agar and porous substrate. Algal biomass was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-81%) and ciprofloxacin (-50%). Gross primary production was completely suppressed by diphenhydramine exposure but stimulated by caffeine (+39%) and cimetidine (+46%). For heterotroph biofilms, community respiration was suppressed by exposure to diphenhydramine (-24%). To characterise PPCP exposure, rates of diffusion from the pharmaceutical diffusing substrates were measured at 10, 20 and 30°C. Diffusion was Fickian for all compounds and all temperatures. Diffusion coefficients, D, were in the range 1.5×10-10 to 1.1×10-9m2s-1. From diffusion data, average release rates over 21 days were typically 30-50ngmin-1cm-2 at 20°C. The results show that PPCPs can dramatically affect rates of key ecological processes, and the relationship between release rate and ambient concentration of PPCPs is discussed

KW - caffeine

KW - cimetidine

KW - ciprofloxacin

KW - diffusion coefficient

KW - diphenhydramine

KW - metformin

UR - http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=EN14141.pdf

U2 - 10.1071/EN14141

DO - 10.1071/EN14141

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 301

EP - 306

JO - Environmental Chemistry

JF - Environmental Chemistry

SN - 1448-2517

IS - 3

ER -