Testosterone is the major circulating androgen in men but exhibits an age-related decline in the ageing male. Late-onset hypogonadism or androgen deficiency syndrome (ADS) is a "syndromic" disorder including both a persistent low testosterone serum concentration and major clinical symptoms, including erectile dysfunction, low libido, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased body fat, decreased vitality or depressed mood. Given its unspecific symptoms, treatment goals and monitoring parameters, this review will outline the various uncertainties concerning the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of ADS to date. Literature was identified primarily through searches for specific investigatorsin the PubMed database. No date or language limits were applied in the literature search for the present review. The current state of research, showing that metabolomics is starting to have an impact not only on disease diagnosis and prognosis but also on drug treatment efficacy and safety monitoring, will be presented, and the application of metabolomics to improve the clinical management of ADS will be discussed. Finally, the scientific opportunities presented by metabolomics and other -omics as novel and promising tools for biomarker discovery and individualised testosterone replacement therapy in men will be explored.