Performance of riverbank filtration under hydrogeologic conditions along the upper Krishna River in southern India

T. B. Boving, K. Patil, F. D'Souza, S. F. Barker, S. L. McGuinness, J. O'Toole, M. Sinclair, A. B. Forbes, K. Leder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems were installed in four rural villages along a 64 km stretch of the upper Krishna River in southern India; with each one designed to supply approximately 2500 people. Site selection criteria included hydrogeological suitability, land availability and access, proximity to villages and their population sizes, and electric power supply. Water samples were collected from the river and the RBF wells over more than one year (November 2015 to December 2017) and were analyzed for Escherichia coli bacteria, major ions, and a range of other physicochemical and chemical parameters. The shallow groundwater at the study sites was also sampled, but less frequently. The hydrogeology of the four RBF systems was described in terms of bore-log data, mixing of river and groundwater, pumping test data, and vertical water column profiling. E. coli removal percentages of > 99.9% were observed immediately before and during the monsoon, when E. coli concentrations in the river were the highest. The results provide evidence that RBF installations are challenging but possible under the climate and hydrogeologic conditions prevailing in this part of southern India. Specifically, when installing RBF wells in the study, area one needs to balance the well depth and set-back distance from the river against the limited extent of alluvial deposits. The viability of RBF systems as a domestic water source is also influenced by other factors that are not limited to southern India, including surface water and groundwater salinity, agricultural practices surrounding RBF wells, and the reliability of the power grid.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
Number of pages17
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Krishna River
  • Riverbank filtration (RBF)
  • Salinity
  • Southern India
  • Water quality
  • Water treatment

Cite this

@article{16795d693f5e47388575f1de7ac65251,
title = "Performance of riverbank filtration under hydrogeologic conditions along the upper Krishna River in southern India",
abstract = "Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems were installed in four rural villages along a 64 km stretch of the upper Krishna River in southern India; with each one designed to supply approximately 2500 people. Site selection criteria included hydrogeological suitability, land availability and access, proximity to villages and their population sizes, and electric power supply. Water samples were collected from the river and the RBF wells over more than one year (November 2015 to December 2017) and were analyzed for Escherichia coli bacteria, major ions, and a range of other physicochemical and chemical parameters. The shallow groundwater at the study sites was also sampled, but less frequently. The hydrogeology of the four RBF systems was described in terms of bore-log data, mixing of river and groundwater, pumping test data, and vertical water column profiling. E. coli removal percentages of > 99.9{\%} were observed immediately before and during the monsoon, when E. coli concentrations in the river were the highest. The results provide evidence that RBF installations are challenging but possible under the climate and hydrogeologic conditions prevailing in this part of southern India. Specifically, when installing RBF wells in the study, area one needs to balance the well depth and set-back distance from the river against the limited extent of alluvial deposits. The viability of RBF systems as a domestic water source is also influenced by other factors that are not limited to southern India, including surface water and groundwater salinity, agricultural practices surrounding RBF wells, and the reliability of the power grid.",
keywords = "Krishna River, Riverbank filtration (RBF), Salinity, Southern India, Water quality, Water treatment",
author = "Boving, {T. B.} and K. Patil and F. D'Souza and Barker, {S. F.} and McGuinness, {S. L.} and J. O'Toole and M. Sinclair and Forbes, {A. B.} and K. Leder",
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language = "English",
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Performance of riverbank filtration under hydrogeologic conditions along the upper Krishna River in southern India. / Boving, T. B.; Patil, K.; D'Souza, F.; Barker, S. F.; McGuinness, S. L.; O'Toole, J.; Sinclair, M.; Forbes, A. B.; Leder, K.

In: Water (Switzerland), Vol. 11, No. 1, 12, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Performance of riverbank filtration under hydrogeologic conditions along the upper Krishna River in southern India

AU - Boving, T. B.

AU - Patil, K.

AU - D'Souza, F.

AU - Barker, S. F.

AU - McGuinness, S. L.

AU - O'Toole, J.

AU - Sinclair, M.

AU - Forbes, A. B.

AU - Leder, K.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems were installed in four rural villages along a 64 km stretch of the upper Krishna River in southern India; with each one designed to supply approximately 2500 people. Site selection criteria included hydrogeological suitability, land availability and access, proximity to villages and their population sizes, and electric power supply. Water samples were collected from the river and the RBF wells over more than one year (November 2015 to December 2017) and were analyzed for Escherichia coli bacteria, major ions, and a range of other physicochemical and chemical parameters. The shallow groundwater at the study sites was also sampled, but less frequently. The hydrogeology of the four RBF systems was described in terms of bore-log data, mixing of river and groundwater, pumping test data, and vertical water column profiling. E. coli removal percentages of > 99.9% were observed immediately before and during the monsoon, when E. coli concentrations in the river were the highest. The results provide evidence that RBF installations are challenging but possible under the climate and hydrogeologic conditions prevailing in this part of southern India. Specifically, when installing RBF wells in the study, area one needs to balance the well depth and set-back distance from the river against the limited extent of alluvial deposits. The viability of RBF systems as a domestic water source is also influenced by other factors that are not limited to southern India, including surface water and groundwater salinity, agricultural practices surrounding RBF wells, and the reliability of the power grid.

AB - Riverbank filtration (RBF) systems were installed in four rural villages along a 64 km stretch of the upper Krishna River in southern India; with each one designed to supply approximately 2500 people. Site selection criteria included hydrogeological suitability, land availability and access, proximity to villages and their population sizes, and electric power supply. Water samples were collected from the river and the RBF wells over more than one year (November 2015 to December 2017) and were analyzed for Escherichia coli bacteria, major ions, and a range of other physicochemical and chemical parameters. The shallow groundwater at the study sites was also sampled, but less frequently. The hydrogeology of the four RBF systems was described in terms of bore-log data, mixing of river and groundwater, pumping test data, and vertical water column profiling. E. coli removal percentages of > 99.9% were observed immediately before and during the monsoon, when E. coli concentrations in the river were the highest. The results provide evidence that RBF installations are challenging but possible under the climate and hydrogeologic conditions prevailing in this part of southern India. Specifically, when installing RBF wells in the study, area one needs to balance the well depth and set-back distance from the river against the limited extent of alluvial deposits. The viability of RBF systems as a domestic water source is also influenced by other factors that are not limited to southern India, including surface water and groundwater salinity, agricultural practices surrounding RBF wells, and the reliability of the power grid.

KW - Krishna River

KW - Riverbank filtration (RBF)

KW - Salinity

KW - Southern India

KW - Water quality

KW - Water treatment

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U2 - 10.3390/w11010012

DO - 10.3390/w11010012

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Water: an open access journal

JF - Water: an open access journal

SN - 2073-4441

IS - 1

M1 - 12

ER -